Parameters

The tables that follow show recommended default values for each benefit or cost factor, along with the normally acceptable range. They were originally developed by staff of EDR Group, TREDIS software and North Carolina State University for the TRB Economics Committee. Note that these are merely recommendations of the authors and there is no guarantee that they are necessarily right for any specific project or analysis application.

Vehicle Mileage-based Operating Cost: Free Flow ($/mile) – the average per-mile cost of vehicles’ tires, maintenance, and depreciation for travel in free-flow conditions. (Fuel costs are treated separately)

Vehicle Operating Cost ($ per mile)

Passenger Car, Taxi and TNC

0.14

Passenger Bus

1.24

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

1.74

All Trucks

0.45

Tractor Trailer

0.45

Light/Medium Duty Truck

0.45

Light Rail

4.16

Heavy Rail

3.19

Commuter Rail

3.96

Intercity Passenger Diesel

7.62

Intercity Passenger Electric (High Speed Rail)

9.55

Freight Train

9.37

Marine Freight

5.91

Passenger Ferry

28.74

Air – All

9.31

General Aviation

2.04

Air Taxi

5.54

Regional Jet

3.16

Commercial Jet

10.2

Jumbo Jet

25.6

Cars (Fed Grant)

0.29

Trucks (Fed Grant)

0.56

Source for Vehicle operating cost (VOC) per mile

Cars using AAA’s 2015 Your Driving Cost publication, combining an average of SUVs, minivans, and small, medium and large cars. VOC includes maintenance, tires, and mileage-based depreciation and mileage-based insurance costs. Fixed costs of ownership related to depreciation, insurance, financing and licensing are removed from VOC and fuel is treated separately in TREDIS. For personal vehicles, TREDIS expects reductions in VMT to decrease vehicle utilization but does not attempt to predict changes in vehicle ownership due to changing travel patterns. For the federal grant application specific passenger car mode, per mile operating costs include all depreciation and no insurance, consistent with guidance.

Trucks are based on the American Trucking Research Institute’s (ATRI) 2014 Operational Costs of Trucking report. Costs of truck and trailer leases and purchase payments, repair and maintenance, insurance, permits and licenses, and tires are included. Costs for labor, fuel and tolls are included elsewhere in TREDIS. Costs for leases, purchases, insurance, permits and licenses are included because in the long-run the industry is expected to maintain a fleet size with roughly constant utilization. CPI inflators are used to bring 2013 dollars up to 2015 dollars. The federal grant mode has been updated based on ATRI 2017 Operational Costs of Trucking numbers.

Transit (Bus, BRT, Light Rail, Heavy Rail, Commuter Rail and Passenger Ferry) uses data from the National Transit Database (NTD). NTD reporting divides operating expenses into four (4) expense functions: vehicle operations, vehicle maintenance, non-vehicle maintenance, and general administration. The transit modes are estimated based on 3-year averages in the 2015 NTD. Total vehicle maintenance costs are summed across all systems and are divided by total vehicle revenue miles.

Intercity Diesel is based on Amtrak’s 2014-2018 Financial Plan for each of six years of budget data. Total train operations are decreased by customer service and research spending and combined with 50 percent of the materials costs, assuming 50 is allocated to infrastructure rather than train equipment. These financial quantities are divided by total train-miles and averaged. CPI is used to bring 2013 dollars up to 2015 dollars.

Intercity Electric is based on Chapter 6 of the California High-Speed Rail Authority’s Revised 2012 Business plan with 2009 dollars brought up to 2015 dollars using a CPI adjustment.

Freight Rail is using a resource titled Prices and Costs in the Railway Sector by J.P. Baumgartner with adjustments using Line-haul Railroad PPI to 2015 dollars. Assume a train has 2 locomotives and 35 cars.

Marine Freight is derived from per hour operating cost factors using an assumed speed of 25 mph.

Cruise Ships is derived from per hour operating cost factors using an assumed speed of 23 mph.

Air is based on Economic Values for FAA Investment and Regulatory Decisions, A Guide 2016 Report

 


 

Vehicle Gallons Per Mile: Free Flow (gal/mile, unless otherwise noted) – estimated gallons of fuel consumed per vehicle mile traveled.

Vehicle Gallons Per Mile: Free Flow (gal/mile, unless otherwise noted)

Car

0.0416

Bus

0.137

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

0.185

All Trucks

0.156

Tractor Trailer

0.169

Light/Medium Duty Truck

0.135

Light Rail

8.33 kWh

Heavy Rail

5.49 kWh

Commuter Rail

2.7

Intercity Passenger Diesel

2.08

Intercity Passenger Electric (High Speed Rail)

14.92 kWh

Freight Train

2.36

Marine Freight

96

Passenger Ferry

10.11

Air – All

1.91

General Aviation

0.174

Air Taxi

0.474

Regional Jet

1.12

Commercial Jet

1.85

Jumbo Jet

5.94

Sources:

·   Car and truck factors are derived from 2015 Federal Highway Statistics, https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2016/vm1.cfm

·   Transit factors are derived from 2015 data in the 2017 Public Transportation Fact Book Table 1

·   Intercity Diesel factors are derived from 2015 data from the Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 36.1 Table 9.10

·   Intercity Electric factors are derived from Scientific Article on high-speed rail impacts in the US, Table 4

·   Freight factors are derived from 2016 data from https://www.bts.gov/content/class-i-rail-freight-fuel-consumption-and-travel

·   Marine Freight operating costs/hour range from $242/hour for an 11,000-ton vessel to $491/hour for a 265,000-ton vessel.  The default used by TREDIS represents a 90,000-ton vessel. Fuel costs have been factored out.

·   Cruise Ships are based on average hourly costs reported by cruise lines.

·   Aviation factors are derived from Economic Values for FAA Investment and Regulatory Decisions, A Guide: assuming 150 mph for GA and air taxi, 450 mph for regional jets, 550 mph for commercial jets

 


 

Vehicle Time-based Operating Cost: ($/hour) the average per-hour cost of operating costs such as vehicles’ tires, maintenance, and depreciation associated with marginal travel. Only used if no VMT change available to apply per-mile costs. Fuel costs are treated separately, and operating costs never include labor components of operations.

Vehicle Time-based Operating Cost: ($/hour)

Passenger Car, Taxi, and TNC

$5.02

All Trucks

22.56

Tractor Trailer

22.56

Light/Medium Duty Truck

22.56

Freight Train

210.8

Passenger Bus

15.55

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

31.25

Light Rail

64.03

Heavy Rail

61.54

Commuter Rail

125.11

Intercity Passenger Diesel

304.75

Intercity Passenger Electric (High Speed Rail)

763.68

Marine Freight

147.66

Passenger Ferry

263.26

Air – All

909.8

General Aviation

595.79

Air Taxi

77.3

Regional Jet

1163.46

Commercial Jet

1820.93

Jumbo Jet

3154.6

Federal Grant Modes:

 

Cars

10.17

Trucks

22.51

Passenger Car, Taxi, and TNC

$5.02

All Trucks

22.56

Source: based on preceding table of operating cost per mile and typical vehicle speeds


 

Vehicle Gallons Per Hour: – estimated gallons of fuel consumed per hour of vehicle travel.

Vehicle Gallons Per Mile: Free Flow (gal/mile, unless otherwise noted)

Car

1.86

Bus

2.43

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

4.66

All Trucks

9.84

Tractor Trailer

10.86

Light/Medium Duty Truck

8.63

Light Rail

126.7

Heavy Rail

109.7

Commuter Rail

85.23

Intercity Passenger Diesel

88

Intercity Passenger Electric (High Speed Rail)

64

Freight Train

55.54

Marine Freight

2400

Passenger Ferry

92.5

Air – All

65

General Aviation

33.9

Air Taxi

13.1

Regional Jet

559.7

Commercial Jet

909

Cargo Aircraft

1835.7

 

Jumbo Jet

3384.25

Source: based on preceding table of operating cost per mile and typical vehicle speeds

$ per Collision

$ per Collision

Property Damage

4,327

Personal Injury

17,4030

Fatality

9,600,000

Source: 2018 USDOT Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) Resource Guide.

 


 

Collision Rates: All rates shown are per 100 million Vehicle Miles Traveled

Fatality Collisions per 100 million Vehicle Miles Traveled

Passenger Car

1.08

Truck (All Types)

0.2

Bus

8.8

All Aircraft

3.54

Air Carrier Aircraft

0

General Aviation Aircraft

12.3

Air Taxi Aircraft

5.07

Injury Collisions (no fatality) per 100 million Vehicle Miles Traveled

Passenger Car

77

Truck (All Types)

9.7

Bus

636

All Aircraft

2.457

Air Carrier Aircraft

0.32

General Aviation Aircraft

8

Air Taxi Aircraft

1.67

Property Damage Only Collisions per 100 million Vehicle Miles Traveled

Passenger Car

200

Truck (All Types)

157

Bus

130

All Aircraft

11.18

Air Carrier Aircraft

0.384

General Aviation Aircraft

39.2

Air Taxi Aircraft

7.27

Sources:

Fatality

 

 

Passenger Car

2014

https://www.bts.gov/archive/publications/national_transportation_statistics/table_02_17

Truck (All Types)

2014

https://www.bts.gov/archive/publications/national_transportation_statistics/table_02_23

Bus

2014

https://www.bts.gov/content/transit-safety-and-property-damage-data

Air Carrier Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-air-carrier-safety-data

General Aviation Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-general-aviationa-safety-data

Air Taxi Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-demand-air-taxia-safety-data

Personal Injury

 

 

Passenger Car

2014

https://www.bts.gov/archive/publications/national_transportation_statistics/table_02_17

Truck (All Types)

2014

https://www.bts.gov/archive/publications/national_transportation_statistics/table_02_23

Bus

2014

https://www.bts.gov/content/transit-safety-and-property-damage-data

Air Carrier Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-air-carrier-safety-data

General Aviation Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-general-aviationa-safety-data

Air Taxi Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-demand-air-taxia-safety-data

Property Damage

 

 

Passenger Car

2014

https://www.bts.gov/archive/publications/national_transportation_statistics/table_02_17

Truck (All Types)

2014

https://www.bts.gov/archive/publications/national_transportation_statistics/table_02_23

Bus

2014

https://www.bts.gov/content/transit-safety-and-property-damage-data

All Aircraft

2015

 

Air Carrier Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-air-carrier-safety-data

General Aviation Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-general-aviationa-safety-data

Air Taxi Aircraft

2015

https://www.bts.gov/content/us-demand-air-taxia-safety-data

 


 

Crew Time Cost ($/hour per crew member) – the business cost of labor for professional drivers and paid crew (including cost of wages plus fringe benefits).

Crew Time Cost ($/hour per crew member)

Car

0

Truck - All

29.48

Tractor Trailer

31.54

Med/Light

25.29

Truck (Fed Grants)

28.6

Bus & BRT

29.81

Rail-transit

44.95

Rail-freight:

42.55

Aircraft:

63.12

Air – Freight

88.59

Ships:

48.03

Source: BLS National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates (last updated with May 2015 values) for applicable transport occupations and Employer Cost for Employee Compensation (ECEC) series (last updated with December 2015 values). Historic and current Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates can be found at the Occupational Employment Statistics page: http://www.bls.gov/oes/tables.htm.  The current version of the ECEC is posted at: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ecec.toc.htm.

Average Crew Size (number) including professional driver/ pilot and supporting paid crew. (This should be customized for the applicable location and type of vehicles.)

Average Crew Size (No. of crew members)

Car:

0

All Trucks:

1.1

Bus:

1

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)

1

Rail-transit:

2

Rail-freight:

2

Cruise ship:

1,000

Marine Freight

20

Passenger Ferry

4

All Trucks

1.1

Truck: Tractor Trailer:

1.1

Source: Bus and rail modes are drawn from typical values for New York City, San Francisco and Chicago, as reported in Chester, Mikhail, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.  Default crew sizes for aircraft were drawn from “Economic Values for FAA Investment and Regulatory Decisions, A Guide,” U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC, 2007. The default crew size for all aircraft is a weighted average based on an estimated mix of aircraft types.


 

Average Passenger Occupancy (number) – the total number of occupants excluding professional driver and supporting paid crew. (Note: in most cases, the car driver is counted as an occupant and not a crew member.)

Average Passenger Occupancy (No. of passengers)

Passenger Car - All Purposes:

1.6

Passenger Car - Business:

1.22

Passenger Car - Commute:

1.13

Passenger Car - Personal:

1.84

Passenger Car – Federal Grants (No Split, Business, Personal)

1.39

Aviation

See note

Source: For federal grants, occupancy factors are set by the guidance document. All other modes car occupancy factors are based on the 2016 National Household Transportation Surveys, calculated as passenger miles by car divided by vehicle miles for various trip purposes.

Note: While there are no longer default passenger occupancies for aviation modes, capacity and load rates for regional jet, commercial airliner, and jumbo jet aircraft can be drawn from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics’ TranStats “Air Carrier Statistics (Form 41 Traffic)- All Carriers” database for aviation, and data from the Seat Guru website can be used to determine passenger seating. Air taxi and general aviation passengers can be estimated using “Economic Values for FAA Investment and Regulatory Decisions, A Guide,” U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC, 2007.

 

Average Freight Cargo (tons) – the total number of tons of freight per vehicle

Average Freight Cargo (tons) per vehicle

All Trucks

24.05

Tractor Trailer

24.05

Light/Medium Duty Truck

4.15

Freight Train

3,562

Marine Freight

14,000

Aircraft

80.6

Air Taxi

1.7

General Aviation

1.7

Regional Jet

2.8

Commercial Jet

72

Jumbo Jet

125

 

 

Source: Vehicle Inventory and Use System (2002). Data for rail is from the Association of American Railroads, 2016 Class I Railroad Statistics. Data for water transport is based on 1000 TEUs per ship at 14 tons per TEU from InfoMare and NY/NJ port; Data for air transport from Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Capacity and load factor data for air cargo aircraft were drawn from “Economic Values for FAA Investment and Regulatory Decisions, A Guide,” U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC, 2013. The value for single unit trucks is based on mean payload weights for straight truck and straight truck plus trailer groups, while the value of combination trucks is based on mean payload weights for truck and trailer combination groups (source: 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use System).

 


 

Passenger Time Cost ($/hour per occupant) – the business opportunity cost or user valuation of the average passenger’s time.

Passenger Time Cost ($/hour per occupant)

Auto, Bus, Rail

 

Business:

33.58

Commute

$23.06

Personal:

11.53

No Split:

11.53

Business

26.5

Personal

14.2

No Split

14.8

Transit OVTT

28.4

Air Transport (and High-Speed rail)

 

All

44.06

Business

63.8

Commute

43.81

Personal

30.67

Source: 2015 hourly wage and salary levels for all occupations based on BLS wage data from the 2016 release of the Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates. Additional long-term business costs (beyond the user value of travel time) are included in commute and business trip purposes. For BCA calculations for federal grant applications, personal time may be valued at a higher level based on median household income, while business time is based on median values rather than means.

Both commuting and personal travel time are treated as a non-money user benefit with a value set at 50% of the wage rate (no fringe added; 70% for personal air travel). This is in line with USDOT guidance on the value of time. For economic impact analysis only, there is an additional allowance for the effect of higher commuting cost on employer cost in the form of a wage rate premium valued at the other 50% of the wage rate per hour without fringe.

Business or “on the clock” travel includes fringe benefits based on the December 2015 release of the Employer Cost for Employee Compensation series. For the “all occupations” category, fringe benefits are roughly an additional 45% on top of wages and salaries (or 31% of total compensation).

Based on USDOT analysis, the value of time for air and high speed rail travelers has been increased by 1.9 times for commute and personal times to reflect the higher income level observed for air travelers.

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